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1824 Vote
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1828 Vote

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1820 Map



A. Social/Economic Developments
a. Sectionalism: way before the Civil War, the nation was splitting up into three distinct sections even though as a whole the economy was flourishing
1. The North (the Northeast and the Old Northwest) became great manufacturers!! and they were soon industrial (Industrial Revolution) and focused on factories and production
2. The Northeast= manufacturing
a. Factoriesà labor unions
i. Political parties ("US Labor party")
b. Urban growthà citiesà population growth
i. This also means poverty
ii. industrial revolution= work availabilities! (immigrants, etc...)
iii. African Americans discriminated against (unions, work, etc...)
3. Railroads and canals, as well as Native American conquests open up Old Northwest which is more agricultural
a. Steel plow and mechanical reaper produce more corn and wheat than before meaning bigger farms and less workers
i. Spoiled grain can be shipped to a city where it will be sold for animal feed or to a whiskey maker
b. Cities on rivers are important shipping centers for crops
ii. The South
1. “King Cotton”
a. Britain, others loooveed American cotton
i. The cotton gin
2. The “Peculiar Institution”
a. Quadruple of slave population!!!
i. They find a way to get around the fact that Congress outlawed importation of slaves in 1808
b. Slave Revolts
i. Denmark Vessey 1822
ii. Nat Turner 1831
3. Social Hierarchy
a. Aristocracy: 100 or more slaves
i. Dominate politically, economically, socially
b. Most farmers: less than 20 slaves
c. White trash: (3/4 of white people in the South) no slaves, subsistence farmers
d. Nay-sayers: some lived in the mountains, did not support the slave/planter system in the south, and did not end up joining the confederacy
e. Culture
i. Feudal (code of chivalry); Upper classes educate through college; Methodist and Baptist religions are growing
iii. The West: the American Frontier
1. “Mountain men” lived in the unsettled Rocky Mountains
2. Native Americans were forced west
3. Pioneers--> frontier
B. Political Developments
a. Era of Jacksonian Democracy ("The Age of the Common Man": "Popular politics")
i. Was Jackson a leader of common man politics and democracy? The debate is how democratic Jackson really was…
1. Lost the Election of 1824, even though he won the popular vote
a. The Republican party (Jeffersonians) was split in four, so Jackson didn’t have enough electoral votes
i. The House decides on John Quincy Adams who partners up with Henry Clay to get more votes
ii. “corrupt bargain” for Jacksonians- upset with political ploys
iii. Jacksonians don't like it that Adams wants $ for federal gov.
iv. “tariff of abominations” (hurts farmers)
1. South Carolina nullifies1828 --> Nullification Crisis
2. Spoils System
3. “rotation” system- makes sure that Democrats get in office
4. Jackson says that this is for the common man
ii. More democratic society in America, and economy, which coincides with the Jacksonian Era
1. Equality (for white people)
2. Less separation between classes
iii. More voting from white lower/middle class men
1. Expanded suffrage
a. “universal male suffrage”
b. lower classes hold "political offices"
2. More newspapers
3. More education
4. Politics are more democratic
a. King Caucusà "nominating conventions"
b. Small third parties
c. Appointingà more elections
iv. “Revolution of 1828”
1. Sufficiently upset with Adams, Jacksonians rallied around “Old Hickory” to win him the presidency
a. Campaign= gossip, not issues
b. Lots of voters!!!!!!!!!!
c. “The Two Party System”
i. Whigs (Henry Clay)
1. like Hamilton’s Federalist Party
2. American System
3. Federal spending, protective tariffs
4. Northerners
ii. Democrats (Jackson)
1. like Jeffersonian Republicans
2. Small federal government
3. Common white man economics
4. No national bank
5. Southerners mainly
d. Jackson wins because he is a common man (Sarah Palin effect) and a war hero (McCain effect)
i. First president (besides Washington) who had not attended college
ii. temper
iii. Racist
iv. Vetoed 12 BILLS!
v. “Kitchen cabinet”
1. Not the official cabinet
vi. "Indian Removal Act of 1830"
C. “Society, Culture and Reform (From 1820 through the antebellum period up to 1860)"
a. Mirrors the idea of Jacksonian Democracy
b. "The Second Great Awakening"
i. Revivals
1. Emphasis on "emotion and damnation"
c. Transcendentalists
d. literature about nature, "romantic movement"
e. Reform: temperance
i. American Temperance Society, 1826
f. Reform: Asylums
i. Dorothea Dix
g. Reform: Slavery
i. American Colonization Society