European Countries of Exploration

Motives for Overseas Exploration:

1.) Improvements in technology
2.) Religious conflict
3.) Trade expansion
4.) The development of Nation-States
5.) Spread of old knowledge/rebirth of classical learning (during the Renaissance c.1400-1500s)

Types of Colonies:

1.) Royal Colony: a colony ruled by the kingdom in which the colony was founded.
2.) Charter Colony: a colony chartered to an individual, trading company, etc.
3.) Proprietary Colony: a colony in which one or more private owners retain rights that are generally the privilege of the state

Early European Settlements:

•The Chesapeake Colonies, including Jamestown and Maryland were settled mainly by those with the intention of seeking out wealth while the New England Colonies including Plymouth and the Massachusetts Bay Colony were settled by those who wanted to break away from the Church of England in some way.

•Jamestown 1607:
-May 24, 1607 ship lead by Captain John Smith, chartered by the Virginia Company lands in Jamestown. 38 out of the original 104 settlers survive.
-1612: the London Company becomes a joint-stock company (form of business organization in which individuals invested in the company through the purchase of shares, although each stockholder had one vote regardless of how many shares he owned)
-Reform program: encouraged economic diversification, English common law replaced martial law, settlers elect the own assembly; the House of Burgesses that meets with the governor to make local laws, settlers permitted to own land (the headright system-colonists received 50 acres of land for every person whose passage to America he financed)
-1624: the king declared the London Company bankrupt and took direct control over Virginia, making it the first royal colony.

•Maryland 1632:
-Maryland charter of 1632 made Baltimore “lord proprietor” of the colony, a colony owned by an individual with power
-Bicameral legislature: legislature with two houses
-Toleration Act of 1649: granted freedom of worship to all Christians
-Major economics: tobacco, corn, livestock
-No established church

•Plymouth 1620:
-Established by Pilgrims (separatists who left England), believe in a total break from the Catholic Church
-1620: the Mayflower lands in Plymouth, 100 settlers sign the Mayflower Compact granting political autonomy and private ownership

•Massachusetts Bay Company 1629:
- joint-stock company chartered by Charles I in 1629, it was controlled by non-separatist who took the charter with them to New England and converted it into a written constitution for the colony
-in the 1630s the general court created by the charter became the MA legislature
-each town formed around a minister/magistrate
-Major economics: ship building (started in 1631), grain, lumber, livestock, fish=diverse economy!
-rapid population growth
-higher life expectancy
-intensely patriarchal/tight community

Settlement, 1650-1700: Demography, Ethnicity, Economy (LEP, pg. 70)

•West Indies:
-life expectancy for men at age 20: 40
-family size: below the replacement rate
-race and ethnicity: black majority by the 1670s
-economy: sugar

•Lower South:
-life expectancy for men at age 20: 42
-family size: about 2 children
-race and ethnicity: black majority by 1710
-economy: Indian slave trade, rice

-life expectancy for men at age 20: 45
-family size: rising after 1680
-race and ethnicity: growing black minority
-economy: tobacco

-life expectancy for men at age 20: 60+
-family size: large
-race and ethnicity: ethnic mix (N/W Europe, English a minority)
-economy: furs, farms

•New England:
-life expectancy for men at age 20: late 60s
-family size: large
-race and ethnicity: almost all English
-economy: farms, fishing, shipbuilding

•New France:
-life expectancy for men at age 20: 60s
-family size: large
-race and ethnicity: almost all French
-economy: furs, farms

Settlement, 1675-1700: Religion and Government (LEP, pg. 70)

•West Indies:
-formal religion: Anglican Church establishment
-religious tone: irreverent
-local government: Parish
-provincial government: Royal

•Lower South:
-formal religion: Anglican Church establishment by 1710
-religious tone: contentious
-local government: Parish and phantom (no court)
-provincial government: Proprietary

-formal religion: Anglican Church establishment
-religious tone: Low Church Anglican
-local government: Parish/County
-provincial government: Royal (VA), Proprietary (MD)

-formal religion: competing sects, no established church
-religious tone: family-based piety, sectarian competition
-local government: County/Township
-provincial government: from Propriety to royal (except in PA)

•New England:
-formal religion: Congregational church established
-religious tone: family-based piety, intensity declining
-local government: Parish/Towns/Counties
-provincial government: Corporate (MA/NH royal)

•New France:
-formal religion: Catholic Church established
-religious tone: intensely Catholic
-local government: Cities
-provincial government: Royal absolutism

The 13 original colonies:

•New England: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire

•Mid-Atlantic: New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware

•Chesapeake: Virginia, Maryland

•Lower South: South Carolina, North Carolina, Georgia