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Pages and Files
APUSH Review Pages:
European Countries of Exploration
Age of Exploration
18th Century; Political and Economic
The 18th Century (Social, Religious, Cultural)
The Road to Revolution - A Change of Heart
The War for Independence
Creation of The New Government
The Federalist Era, 1789-1800
Internal Developments from 1820-1830
Jacksonian Democracy (1829-1841)
Ante-bellum Reform Movements - Temperance Movements
Life in the North from 1790 - 1860
Life in the South
Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion
Tyler, Polk, and Western Expansion of the 1800s
The Crisis of the 1850s
The Civil War,John Brown to Appomattox Courthouse
The Industrial Era (1877-1882)
The Reaction to Corporate Industrialism (1882-1887)
Life in America, 1887-1892
The Economic andSocial Crisis of 1892-1897
War and the Americanization of the World from 1897-1902
Progressivism and Teddy Roosevelt (1902-1907)
Progressivism and Regulation
Neutrality and World War I- America's Involvement
Politics During the 1920s
The 1920's - Economic Advancement, Social Tension
The Great Depression; Causes and New Deal Legislation
New Deal Era Diplomacy
The 1930s-Life in America (Social)
American Provocation of the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor
WORLD WAR II
The Cold War
The Politics of Affluence; 1945-1960
The Liberal Revival of Kennedy and Johnson
Nixon's Reaction (1969-1974)
The Conservative Revolution (1981-1991)
The Salem Witch Trials and the Life of Sarah Averill Wildes
An Analysis of Colonial Radicalism
American Reactions Towards Immigration
US Foreign Policy in the Philippines
How has the growth of America been reflected in the growth of the Cinema Industry since the beginning of the 20th century?
Did the opinions of the Lost Generation of artists reflect the opinons of the majority of Americans in the 1920s?
How did Prohibition, Bootlegging, and Organized Crime influence America in the 1920's and 1930's?
How did Charles E. Mitchell influence the stock market crash of October 1929?
Why and in which ways was the entertainment industry of the 1930s depression-proof?
Progression of Pin-up, 1930s to Modern Day
American Provocation of the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor
Bombing In Hiroshima
Did Truman Make the Right Decision?
How was Bedford,VA, an example of the small American towns that were affected by World War II and the last attack on Omaha Beach?
How Did Disney Affect the World War II War Effort?
The Changing Role Of First Ladies In The White House
How did the feminine mystique create tension between women in the 1960's?
Drug Culture In The 1960's
Women's Progression in Politics (1960s-present)
The American Media Shift After Watergate
Women's Movement and Film after the 60s and 70s
How Has the Military Industrial Complex Effect the Culture of America?
how McCarthyism influenced America
Music and Culture
The Arts and Crafts Movement
What changed in the way Americans viewed war, from World War II to the Vietnam and Iraq Wars?
Environmentalism in America
Commies and other isms
these are pages whose position/existence
I am unsure about:
Anne Bradstreet poem
Ante-bellum Reform Movements - Women's Rights
The Economic andSocial Crisis of 1892-1897
social crisis 1892-1897
Table of Contents
Electoral Map from the Election of 1896
Leading up to the Depression and the Social Crisis
The Gilded Age
The Populist Party
The Election of 1896
Before the late 1800s, America had been a rural country. People in this time owned their own farms and worked for themselves and not for wages. This meant that there was not a large gap between the rich and the poor. In the late 1800s America began to change. This change resulted in industrialism in the North, fast growing cities with large populations, and a greater gap between the rich and the poor. The shift went mostly undisputed due to the preoccupation with the division between the North and South and the Civil War. However, by the 1890s the change could no longer go unseen and America experienced the panic and depression of 1893 and the social crisis that arose soon after.
II. Leading up to the Depression and the Social Crisis
a. The Railroads
The major development of railroads in the late 1800s were an imperative factor in the of the American economy. Railroads made a market for goods that was larger in scale than anything that had previously existed. With railroads came mass consumption, mass production, and economic specialization. Railroads spurred America ahead into mass industrialization and opened up nationwide markets that expanded the economy.
The mass industrialism that helped change America's economy was aided by new technologies and innovations. These new technologies made work faster so that more could be done and this led to mass consumption. Due to the fact that industries were putting out more and more products and the worlds market was expanding, new businesses were created to sell these new goods.
c. Concentration of Wealth
Industrialization and mass consumption lead , a concentration of wealth that was new to America. There were new and sharply felt class divisions that resulted in the very rich, the middle class, and the very poor. This new class of millionaires and business monopolies led to
III. The Gilded Age
a. Politics of the Gilded Age
Politics in the Gilded Age were largely unimportant and the American people turned to focus on the newly changing economy. The government was relatively inactive during this period and it practiced the new laissez-faire economics and social Darwinism. The two political parties at this time remained fairly neutral and did not take stands on any hot topics. The presidents of the Gilded Age were relatively insignificant and they failed to serve second terms. The main issues that were addressed in the politics of the Gilded Age were civil service reforms, currency and tariff problems, the money question, and the new demands for silver money.
IV. The Populist Party
a. The Omaha Platform
In the 1890s there was a great unhappiness in the South and West that originated from agrarian issues. In 1892 The Farmer's Alliance sent delegates from numerous states to Omaha, Nebraska where they established the Omaha platform. At the meeting a new political party called the People's or the Populist party was established. The Populist Party was mainly focused on breaking up the economic power that the large trusts and bankers held. The Omaha platform called for a direct election of senators, the enacting of state laws by the voters themselves, unlimited silver coinage, graduated income tax, telegraph and telephone systems that were owned by the government, loans for farmers to help them stabilize prices, and a shorter work day for factory workers.
b. The Election of 1892
In the election of 1892 a candidate from the Populist Party, James Weaver ran against Cleveland and Harrison. Although James Weaver lost the election he still obtained one million votes and made the Populist Party the first third party to win votes from the electoral college. Cleveland won the election.
V. The Depression
In 1893 the stock market crashed resulting in the panic of 1893. The stock market crashed because of over-speculation and the bankruptcy of many railroads. The panic grew into a depression that lasted for four years. President Cleveland tried to combat the depression by praising the gold standard and maintaining laissez-faire economics.
a. The Gold Reserve and Tariff Issue
Due to the depression there was a decline in silver prices which influenced people to exchange their silver dollars for gold dollars. Because of this rapid exchange, the gold reserve dropped to an extremely low level. President Cleveland's first act in response to the gold drain was to repeal
Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890
. When the drain did not stop, Cleveland borrowed sixty five million dollars in gold from a Wall Street banker to help the gold standard flourish. The Continued depression led to many jobless people and in 1894, Populist Jacob Coxey led a march on Washington.
You men who work from sea to sea,
All our country through, Under the flag that flutters free Its burning stars and field of blue,
You want no coin but gold, gold, Gold as in the days of old,
You want no coin but gold.
. . . . Thus guard the honor of your land,
Honest hearts and hands,
Keep faith, for hearth and home demand
The care of patriot bands
Whose standard shall be gold, gold,
Gold, like a shield of old,
standard shall be gold.
--Ruth Lawrence, Bar Harbor, Maine, in
New York World
, 11 October 1896 (Anti-gold standard.
VI. The Election of 1896
William Jennings Bryan
By 1896 American politics were making a turning point with the repeal of the silver act and the Populists gain
ing ground. In the 1896 election, the Democrats became divided between those who valued the gold standard and those who were prosilver. At the Democratic Convention, William Jennings Bryan pushed himself into the spotlight with a very powerful speech. The Democrats and Populists both nominated Bryan as their candidate and therefore had to combine their campaigns to become one unified front. The Republicans nominated William Mckinley who was known for his support of high tariffs. The Republican campaign pushed the idea of a strong and prosperous nation and they used the fact the when a Democrat was president the nation entered into a four year long depression. The Republican campaign also vowed to keep up the gold standard. William McKinley won the election of 1896 at the last minute because Bryan's campaign was hit with a rise in wheat prices which made the farmers less desperate for change and employers made their workers promise not to vote for Bryan. Just as McKinley took office the economy took a turn for the better and the gold standard was revived. The election of 1896 was quite significant
numerous reasons. First, the insignificant politics of the Gilded Age ended with the presidency of McKinley. Second, the Democratic dominance was over and the Republicans took back power in Congress and thirdly, the Republicans now represented business and industry while the Democrats represented the South and the Populist supporters. After 1896 the Populist Party lost a large amount of its supporters and it slowly died out. The Republican win meant a win for industry which further pushed America into new, urban ways of life. McKinley also brought America out of isolation and into the world wide market and foreign affairs, changing the direction of American politics.
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