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APUSH Review Pages:
European Countries of Exploration
Age of Exploration
18th Century; Political and Economic
The 18th Century (Social, Religious, Cultural)
The Road to Revolution - A Change of Heart
The War for Independence
Creation of The New Government
The Federalist Era, 1789-1800
Internal Developments from 1820-1830
Jacksonian Democracy (1829-1841)
Ante-bellum Reform Movements - Temperance Movements
Life in the North from 1790 - 1860
Life in the South
Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion
Tyler, Polk, and Western Expansion of the 1800s
The Crisis of the 1850s
The Civil War,John Brown to Appomattox Courthouse
The Industrial Era (1877-1882)
The Reaction to Corporate Industrialism (1882-1887)
Life in America, 1887-1892
The Economic andSocial Crisis of 1892-1897
War and the Americanization of the World from 1897-1902
Progressivism and Teddy Roosevelt (1902-1907)
Progressivism and Regulation
Neutrality and World War I- America's Involvement
Politics During the 1920s
The 1920's - Economic Advancement, Social Tension
The Great Depression; Causes and New Deal Legislation
New Deal Era Diplomacy
The 1930s-Life in America (Social)
American Provocation of the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor
WORLD WAR II
The Cold War
The Politics of Affluence; 1945-1960
The Liberal Revival of Kennedy and Johnson
Nixon's Reaction (1969-1974)
The Conservative Revolution (1981-1991)
The Salem Witch Trials and the Life of Sarah Averill Wildes
An Analysis of Colonial Radicalism
American Reactions Towards Immigration
US Foreign Policy in the Philippines
How has the growth of America been reflected in the growth of the Cinema Industry since the beginning of the 20th century?
Did the opinions of the Lost Generation of artists reflect the opinons of the majority of Americans in the 1920s?
How did Prohibition, Bootlegging, and Organized Crime influence America in the 1920's and 1930's?
How did Charles E. Mitchell influence the stock market crash of October 1929?
Why and in which ways was the entertainment industry of the 1930s depression-proof?
Progression of Pin-up, 1930s to Modern Day
American Provocation of the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor
Bombing In Hiroshima
Did Truman Make the Right Decision?
How was Bedford,VA, an example of the small American towns that were affected by World War II and the last attack on Omaha Beach?
How Did Disney Affect the World War II War Effort?
The Changing Role Of First Ladies In The White House
How did the feminine mystique create tension between women in the 1960's?
Drug Culture In The 1960's
Women's Progression in Politics (1960s-present)
The American Media Shift After Watergate
Women's Movement and Film after the 60s and 70s
How Has the Military Industrial Complex Effect the Culture of America?
how McCarthyism influenced America
Music and Culture
The Arts and Crafts Movement
What changed in the way Americans viewed war, from World War II to the Vietnam and Iraq Wars?
Environmentalism in America
Commies and other isms
these are pages whose position/existence
I am unsure about:
Anne Bradstreet poem
Ante-bellum Reform Movements - Women's Rights
The Crisis of the 1850s
The Crisis of the 1850s
Turmoil in the 1850s sparked the Civil War. The road to secession began because of problems of sectional balance. This was a
combination of long term and immediate causes.
The Road to War
-Long Term Causes
The Compromise of 1820
The Compromise of 1833
- Immediate Causes
The Compromise of 1850
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Dred Scott v Sanford
Election of 1860
Fundamental differences between the North and South were exentuated during this period as Northern industry
skyrocketed and the South remained stubbornly agrarian.
The Southern economy was almost entirely agricultural. The arrival of
with Eli Whitney's cotton gin reinforced the dependence on cheap labor doing manual labor. While tobacco, sugarcane, and rice were important cash crops, cotton made up more than half of the United State's exports. In 1860, at the time the first states seceded, cotton sales totaled $191 million in exports (57 percent of total U.S. exports). Southerners believed that any change in the positions of the slaves would cut into their profit and hurt the economy that favored
the slavers with dozens of slaves, despite the fact that most Southern families owned less than four slaves.
On the other hand, the Northern economy was very industrialized. Lowell girls were appearing, Supreme Court decisions
favored business, and the wealthy were becoming wealthier. Specialized machines were more common, and wage labor was becoming the norm.
The struggle between
, as well as the debate about the National Bank also caused conflict.
The Compromise of 1820:
, a temporary solution to the tension building between the North and the South, drew a line at
mark the Northernmost boundary for slavery in the future, while admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state to balance the ratio of free states and slave states in the Congress. However, neither side would be content with this boundary. Missouri pushed slavery further Northward to the dismay of abolitionists, yet Southerners would not be happy restricted to less than half of the United States and felt continually persecuted.
The Compromise of 1833:
Tariff of Abominations
raised a protective tariff in 1828 and again in 1832, hurting the South, economic tensions between
the North and South were further increased.
had to send in federal troops when South Carolina decreed they had
the federal tariff. The Compromise of 1833 occurred when Jackson asked Congress to reduce the tariffs and South Carolina rescinded their statement that they were nullifying federal law. However, tensions remained.
The addition of
, from the
created upheavals as different groups vied to
make the lands slave states or free states.
While all parties knew acquisitions such as the Oregon Territory would be divided into free states, the futures of other areas were in doubt.
The upheavals that occurred while each side tried to come out ahead increased the opposition each side felt.
The Compromise of 1850:
A compromise between the North and South that actually increased tensions instead of alleviating them, it mandated:
California's entry into the Union as a free state
a stronger Fugitive Slave Law
popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico
divided the rest of the Mexican Cession into Utah and New Mexico
disputed land between Texas and New Mexico given to the new territories
the government assuming Texas' debt of $10 million
banning the slave trade in the District of Columbia, but allowing slave holding
The most important parts of this compromise, the first three conditions listed, did nothing to help problems.
balance in the Congress between free states and slave states, giving the free states more power during Congressional
Fugitive Slave Law
was an important balancing aspect in the Compromise, but many Northerners resented being forced to obey a law they morally opposed. It also required states to help capture and return run away slaves. On the other side, Southerners were aggravated by what they thought was blatant disregard for the law. In response to the law, the Underground Railroad was created, an illegal network that became a symbol to abolitionists of hope, and a symbol to slave owners of betrayal. Finally, the idea of
(determining the slavery issue by means of majority vote)
changed the course of the struggle. While originally it was used for New Mexico and Utah, the attempt to allow the public to decide the fate of their state caused Bleeding Kansas: exponentially increasing the turmoil and hatred as each side accused the other of being murderers.
FREE SOIL MOVEMENT
and the WILMOT PROVISO
Free Soil Movement--> Northern Democrats and Whigs typically who did not necessarily want an end to slavery per se, but simply sought to keep the West a land of opportunity for whites ONLY
"free soil, free labor, and free men" (they also advocated free homesteads..)
You mention it below--do you think any more background is needed?
Harriet Beecher Stowe (1852):
Known as the "the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war," she was the author of the book
Uncle Tom's Cabin
A book about the cruelty of slave owners, it made Northerners sympathize with slaves, giving the abolitionists more support among the previously more hesitant
and sold 300,000 copies in its first year.
It created a moral controversy among some Southerners, but most called it lies and believed the Northerners were "incurably prejudiced" and bent on destroying their way of life.
Ostend Manifesto (1854):
First an undercover operation overseen by President Polk, it was an attempt to buy
from Spain, but Spain rejected U.S.
offers. Then, in 1852, President Pierce was negotiating to buy Cuba, but a press leak, then the outrage of abolitionists in the Congress, forced him to stop. The Northerners thought the president was going behind their back, but the Southerners thought the North was holding them back from expansion and more prosperity. Other similar schemes included the
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850)
Walker Expedition (1853)
, and the
Gadsden Purchase (1853)
which actually resulted in additions to American property.
A result of the use of popular sovereignty in Kansas after the
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
, the fights during this tim
e have been
called the first battles of the civil war. The Kansas-Nebraska Act declared that the issue of whether the states would
slavery would be decided by popular vote. This caused an influx of Northern settlers who wanted to create a free state, people who would be called
. On the other hand, people who were pro-slavery tended to cross the border from Missouri and raid the settlements of Free-Soilers. These people were called
, and created outrage, since the Northerners considered them to be violating the law.
When the elections occurred, Border Ruffians illegally voted in Kansas, creating a pro-slavery government under the
When Congress refused to recognize this government, voters were given another chance to create a constitution. However, Kansas would not become a state until 1861, when it entered the Union as a free state.
Dred Scott v Sanford (1857):
When Dred Scott, an escaped slave, was claimed as inherited property he sued for his freedom. However, the pro-slavery judges ruled
African Americans could not be citizens; therefore he had no legal right to sue
Congress could not render territories "free" because they would be depriving people of their property;
The Missouri Compromise was therefore illegal (repudiates the Missouri Compromise)
This heightened problems as abolitionists were outraged and Southerners were thrilled. As slaves lost legal rights, more people
were swayed to the cause of abolition, thought the Southerners felt that the ruling gave support to their position.
The Supreme Court Case of Dred Scott v Sanford, from
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858):
A series of debates for the Senate seat of Illinois, they brought Lincoln to the national stage while chipping away at Douglas'
support among Southern Democrats. They solidified the Republican Party, setting a base for it, while angering Southerners who were dismayed by the lack of a pro-slavery candidate. The debates caused the creation of the Freeport Doctrine, and showed Southerners a possible future, as Lincoln seemed to them to be an abolitionist.
The Freeport Doctrine states that slavery could not exist if the community did not enforce laws (slave codes) maintaining it.
Lincoln's "A House Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand" speech from
John Brown's Raid (1859):
An avid abolitionist, John Brown led a small group to Harpers Ferry, Virginia to try and start a slave uprising. He attacked a federally
held arsenal and was quickly caught, tried and hung. Though moderate Republicans in the North condemned his actions, many felt they were forced to take him on as a symbol of abolitionism or hurt their cause and so he became called a martyr. Southerns felt that the North had shown its' true colors, and their mistrust of the North intensified. Since the raid had also been upon federal property, the North was acting even more pro treason than it had in the past when violating the Fugitive Slave Law.
Election of 1860:
The final straw to the South was the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. After the splitting of the Democratic party and other
unsatisfied voters created multiple parties, the election became a four-way race. The Constitutional Union Party, the Northern Democrats, and the Southern Democrats all split the votes of those who were pro-slavery, while the Republican Party reaped the benefits. Besides being against the spread of slavery, the Republicans also promised protective tariffs for the North, further agitating the South. Lincoln took all the Northern states. He had no need of a single electoral vote from the South.
This began the Republican Party, which merged together a coalition of Northern Whigs, Northern Democrats, Free-Soilers, Know-Nothings and people who were ANTI the Kansas-Nebraska Act
CRITTENDEN COMPROMISE (the amendment that would guarantee the right to hold slaves in all territories south of 36 30. Lincoln cannot accept because it violates Republican position prohibiting the extension of slavery in territories...).
This is kind of a fun website about Abe Lincoln. It also has a link to a special Bill Moyers feature they did on the legend of Lincoln. In case anyone is interested.
The December after Lincoln was elected, South Carolina held a special convention, and voted to leave the Union. They believed
they were following in the tradition of the American Revolution.
Presidential Election 1860
In February 1861, the seven states that had seceded by that time would come together and create the
. Eventually, this would lead to
Battle Hymn of the Republic
"Electoral Vote by State." Map.
. 10 Apr. 2009 <
Newman, John J., Schmalbach, John M.
United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination
. 2nd ed. New York: Amsco, 2006.
Pojer, Susan M. "Compromise of 1850." Map.
. 8 Apr. 2009. 8 Apr. 2009 <
"U.S. Territorial Acquisitions." Map.
. 8 Apr. 2009 <
West, Jean M. "King Cotton: The Fiber of Slavery."
Slavery in America
. Feb. 2004. PBS. 8 Apr. 2009 <
Further information can be found by looking at
, a debate from class
The 1850s: Prelude to Civil War
Discussion Activity - "Secession & Disunion"
2005 APUSH Free-Response Question (Form B)
This page was made by Amy of Review Group D. Edited by: Kat
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