I. Politics

    • A. Republican Barry Goldwater lost 1964 election, but his campaign laid down the ground work for a rebirth of conservationism
      goldwater.jpg
      Barry Goldwater revives conservative era
      • 1. terms led by Nixon and Ford and ideas presented by Milton Friedman, William Buckley Jr., and others hinted a movement toward right-minded thinking
    • B. 1976—Conservative Republicans choose Ronald Reagan as their candidate and he campaigns as a “true conservative”
      • 1. Reagan lost to Democrat Jimmy Carter
    • C. Support system
      • 1. by 1980, conservationism had an extensive group of supporters in all areas of American society
        • a. political conservatives (Republicans in govt)
        • b. political action committees (PACs); opposed to…
          • 1) Big government
          • 2) New Deal liberalism
          • 3) Gun control
          • 4) Feminism
          • 5) Gay rights
          • 6) Welfare
          • 7) Affirmative action
          • 8) Sexual permissiveness
          • 9) Abortion
          • 10) Drug use
        • c. all of these were diminishing “family and religious values, the worth ethic, and national security”
    • D. Election of 1980
      • 1. Ronal Reagan ran against Jimmy Carter and won by a landslide (489 to 49 electoral votes)
      • 2. During Reagan’s campaign, he attacked the Democratic “big-government” solutions to problems
      • 3. And because of the huge increase of unemployment, Regan would ask, “Are you better off now than you were four years ago?”
    • E. Regan Presidency
      ronaldreagan.jpg
      Ronald Reagan
      • 1. Republicans gained control of the senate for the first time since 1954
      • 2. Major goals:
        • a. provide tax cuts to repair the quick economic expansion of the U.S.
        • b. reduce government spending on welfare
        • c. strengthen and bulk U.S. armed forces
        • d. create a more conservative federal court
      • 3. Foreign Policy
        • a. wanted to increase U.S. international prestige and increase Cold War competition with Soviet Union
          • 1) proposed a defense system: Strategic Defense Initiative
            • a) proposal to develop technology that allows creation of a “space-based” defensive missile shield surrounding U.S
        • b. Soviet Union= “focus of evil in the modern world”
        • c. Reagan spent money on anticommunist forces in Latin America
          • 1) CIA set up contras (Nicaraguan military force) to oppose the Nicaraguan Marxist government
        • d. With his foreign policy, U.S. encountered many disagreements with the Middle East
          • 1) CIA openly sent aid to anticommunist forces in Afghanistan (these forces, however, were opponents to the contras, whom the U.S. were currently supporting)
          • 2) Iran-contra Affair
            • a) scandal in Reagan administration à U.S. covertly sold arms to Iran (who were accused of holding American hostages), and used the $ to fund the contras in their attempts to overthrow their govt
        • e. End of Cold War
          • 1) 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev became new leader of Soviet, and he implemented two reforms:
            • a) glansot (no longer secluded à attempt to move toward political freedom for nation)
            • b) perestroika (introduced some free-market practices à reorganize Soviet economy)
          • 2) 1987, made progress by agreeing with Reagan to remove and destroy all intermediate-rang miss
            41-georgebush_1.jpg
            George H. W. Bush
            iles
          • 3) 1988, relieved more pressure by pulling troops out from Afghanistan where Soviet troops were stationed
    • F. Election of 1988
      • 1. George H. Bush won over Democratic nominee, Dukakis, by accusing him on weak national defense; he also promised absolutely no raises in taxes
    • G. George H. Bush Presidency
      • 1. International movement
        • a. 1989, in Tiananmen Square (China), students protesting for democracy created an uproar in the nation; protest suppressed by Chinese Communist government, who brought in tanks and killed hundreds of protestors (event broadcasted across western world)
        • b. Communism began to fall all over eastern Europe when Gorbachev announced he would no longer support Communist govt with Soviet forces
          • 1) Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, and East Germany
            • a) 1989, the Berlin Wall was torn down between East and West Germany

          • 2) 1991, Bush and Gorbachev signed the START I agreement that reduced amount of nuclear weapons to less than 10,000 per side
        • c. 1990, Iraqi dictator, Saddam Hussein, invades Kuwait and threatens oil sources in Persian Gulf
          • 1) UN attempts to put pressure on Iraq to leave Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, but they resist
          • 2) 1991, Desert Storm (air forces from U.S. and 28 other nations attack Iraq from air, and U.S. land forces quickly force Iraq to surrender)



II. Economics

    • A. “Reaganomics”
      80_rg_a.jpg
      government spending emphazized on national defense
      • 1. Reagan’s administration employed supply-side economics
        • a. tax cuts à reduced govt spending à “investment by the private sector” à increased production, jobs, and prosperity
        • b. this method contrasted Keynesian economics, which the Democrats favored
        • c. critics related Reagan’s method to the “trickle-down” economics taking place in the 1920s
          • 1) upper class Americans profited and some of their profits and spending benefited the lower classes
        • d. Federal Tax Reduction
          • 1) huge amounts of tax relief to upper-income taxpayers
          • 2) small investors were able to invest up to $2000 a year in Individual Retirement Accounts without paying taxes on the invested money
        • e. Spending Cuts
          • 1) Republicans cut over $40 billion from domestic programs (food stamps, student loans, and mass transportation)
          • 2) Spending is counteracted by increased military spending
      • 2. because of huge tax cuts and increased military spending the national debt went from $900 billion to roughly $2.7 trillion
        • a. tax cuts increased consumption of foreign products rather than stimulate investments
          • 1) so U.S. trade deficit reached about $150 billion per year
          • 2) this increased purchase of U.S. real estate by foreigners
        • b. 1985, Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Balanced Budget Act was passed
          • 1) entailed huge spending cuts to reduce debt
          • 2) In two years, Congress reduced deficit to $66 billion
      • 3. Results of Reaganomics
        • a. Because of the huge deficits produced by Reagan’s policy, it became futile for either Democrats or Republicans to present new social programs to the nation (i.e. universal health coverage)
        • b. It was the first time since time around World War I that the U.S. was in national debt50_80_stockP.gif70_80_excr.gif
          50_80_inf.gif
    • B. 1982 Recession (worst recession since 1930s)
      • 1. Banks closed
      • 2. Unemployment rate reached 11%
      • 3. 1983, U.S. entered year long recovery
        • a. Recovery widened the rich-poor gap
        • b. Middle-class recovery regained total losses mid 90’s



III. Religion

    • A. The conservative revolution was a return to traditional values centered around religious principles
      • 1. Support came from right-wing evangelical Christians
        • a. Branch of Protestantism emphasizing “born-again” religious revival
        • b. Strict interpretation of the Bible
      • 2. Evangelicalism (concentration in fundamentalist sects) became popular
        • a. Denounced “moral relativism of liberals”
        • b. Prominent evangelical figures
          • 1) Billy Graham
          • 2) Jerry Falwell
          • 3) Pat Robertson
        • c. Came together to form a movement called the New Right, which player a bigger role in the Ronald Reagan election (1980) and in 1994 when Republicans regained control of both houses from President Clinton



IV. Social Aspects

    • A. Reagan’s Administration was against labor unions
      • 1. Developed various antiunion policies that quickened the decline of labor union membership
      • 2. Recession and foreign competition reduced workers’ wages
    • B. Social Issues
      • 1. Reagan began placing far more conservative judges to federal courts, just as promised
        • a. Nominated Sandra Day O’Connor, Antonin Scalia, and Anthony Kennedy to the Supreme Court; under a new chief justice, William Rehnquist
        • b. Supreme Court reduced affirmative action in the workplace
        • c. Limited court case, Roe v. Wade à permitted states to impose restrictions on abortion (mandating the notification of a minor’s parents before having an abortion
      • 2. Great emphasis on the roles of men and women
        • a. Traditional values
        • b. Nuclear family
        • c. Separate spheres



V. Intellectual Aspects

    • A. The 1980s was a time when everyone was doing everything possible to better their status
      • 1. It was all about “Me! Me! Me!”
    • B. Movie-making and big companies were money-makers at the time
      • 1. At least 20 million people went to the movies every week
        • a. ET
        • b. Sixteen Candles
        • c. The Goonies
        • d. Die Hard
        • e. The Terminator
        • f. Back to the Future
        • g. The Breakfast Club
      • 2. several of today’s wealthiest people began earning their fame and fortune in the 80s (Donald Trump, Bill Gates)
        378641553_62005be599.jpg
        Microsoft Company in 1978 (Bill Gates, at age 23, sits at bottom left
        • a. in 1980, the Microsoft company was restructured and Gates was made the president of the company
        • b. in 1985, the company came out with its first version of Microsoft Windows and made deals with IBM to create an operating system, OS/2
      • 3. there was a rush of money into the stock market as people began to buy and sell shares and began making investments
    • C. Some great fictional books were published as well
      • 1. Tim O’Brien à The Things They Carried in 1990 about the Vietnam War
      • 2. Toni Morrison à Beloved in 1987 about post Civil War slaves
      • 3. Cormac McCarthy à Blood Meridian about the old west



VI. Art











http://www.allbusiness.com/retail-trade/miscellaneous-retail-miscellaneous/4404155-1.html
http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade80.html
http://www.inthe80s.com/toptens/toptenmovies.shtml
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Princeton Review: AP U.S. History