Progressivism and Teddy Roosevelt 1902-1907 by GROUP E

Introduction to Progressivism

  • social movement led by middle-class Americans wanting to reform different parts of society
    • Supporters/Activists
      • middle-class urbanites
      • white-collar office workers (doctors/lawyers/middle-managers)
      • Protestant church leadersexternal image palmateer_fig02b.jpg
      • African Americans
      • union leaders
      • feminists
    • lasted through presidencies of:
      • Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)
      • Taft (1909-1913)
      • Wilson’s 1st term (1913-1917)
    • died down with entry into WWI in 1919
  • Concerned with:
    • growth of big business
    • gap b/w rich and poor
    • conflict b/w labor and capital
    • corrupt political machines
    • Jim Crow laws
    • women’s suffrage/suffering democracy
  • Philosophy
    • govt action would correct society’s and economy’s problems
      • honest government and just laws needed
      • balanced pragmatism (practicality) in approach to morals, ideas, and knowledge
      • challenge traditional views that blocked reform
    • challenged impractical laissez-faire principles
  • Goals
    • limit big business power
      • lessen gap b/w rich and poor
    • improve democracy
    • strengthen social justice

WATCH and LEARN about Progressive Programs!

  • Journalism
    • Muckraking
      • Investigative journalists seeking to uncover true stories in order to inform the public about issues concerning government, economics, and health external image image11.png
      • Works were found in magazines:
        • McClure’s Magazine
      • Stories were also found in books:
        • The Shame of Cities- Lincoln Steffens (1904)
          • The corrupt politics in cities
        • How the Other Half Lives- Jacob Riis (1890)
          • Photojournal about poverty in America
        • The History of the Standard Oil Company- Ida Tarbell (1902)
        • The Jungle- Upton Sinclair
          • Horrors of the meatpacking industry
      • yellow journalism
        • exaggerated stories about foreign affairs with Cuba
      • Inspired laws to be made to fix the wrongs of society

external image riis-2.gif
photo from: "How the Other Half Lives"

    • Political Reforms:
      • New York Polling Place
        New York Polling Place
        State Reforms
        • Secret Ballot
          • Allowed voters to vote for who they wanted since the votes could not be traced back to the vote
        • Direct Primary
          • A new method of nominating party candidates, thus giving the people more involvement in government
        • Direct Election of U.S. senators
          • 17th amendment
          • required senators to be elected by popular vote
        • Initiative, Referendum, Recall
          • initative: Allowed voters to make legislature consider bills
          • referendum: Allowed citizens to vote on proposed laws
          • recall: Allowed voters to remove politicians from office
          • Ideas introduced by Hiram Johnson of California
        • Many ideas introduced by Robert La Follette of Wisconsin who advocated strongly for the reform of politics with the ”Wisconsin Idea”
      • City Reforms
        • City control of public utilities such as energy and transportation, rather then private companies
        • Creation of positions such as city manager to prevent political machines from taking over cities

external image ProhibitionPoster.jpg

Social Reforms:
  • Temperance and prohibition
    • “drys” advocated for the abolition of alcohol to protect morals and prevent corruption
    • succeeded in passing the 18th Amendment which outlawed alcohol in the U.S.
  • Social Welfare
    • Settlement houses
      • Provided benefits for immigrants in the working class
      • Jane Addams – Hull house [see below]

  • African American Rights
    • The Souls of Black Folk (1903)-W.E.B. Du Bois
      • Criticized the passive ways of Booker T Washington
      • Demanded equal political and social rights for African Americans immediately
    • Niagara Movement
      • Group of black intellectuals, including Du Bois, that designed a program to gain equalexternal image 041-hull1a.gif rights for blacks

Settlement Housing: HULL HOUSE

Theodore Roosevelt

  • Was President from 1901-1909 but remained involved in politics after that
    • TR created the Progressive Party in 1912
    • Began many Progressive Reforms during his presidency
    • Enthralling personality
  • Square Deal
    • TR sided with the coal miners during a strike (wanted 8 hour work day and higher wages) in 1902 stating that if the mine owners did not abide by the miners wishes 10,000 federal troops would take over the land
    • Significant because it was a rare occasion for the President to side with the workers as opposed to the big business because at this time big business was very involved in Politics
    • It was new and it created a new trend of Presidents looking at both sides instead of just siding with the big businesses
  • Trust-bustingexternal image teddy-roosevelt-standard-oil450.jpg
    • The idea of dissolving the monopolies held by big businesses to provide more competition in the economy
    • 1902- TR ordered the $400 million Northern Securities Company dissolved
    • TR’s main goal with trust-busting was not to get rid of large corporations but to regulate them
    • Significant because up until now presidents sided with the big corporations and let them do as they pleased because they provided the government with money (again what TR did here was new and progressive)

  • Reforms
    • Railroad Regulation
      • Took power away from the railroads and gave it to the ICC
      • Elkins Act (1903)
        • Gave Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) power to stop railroads from granting rebates
      • Hepburn Act (1906)
        • Gave Interstate Commerce Commission the power to fix “just and reasonable” rates for railroads
    • Pure Food and Drug Act
      • An act passed by TR in an attempt to better the state of food, especially meat
      • It forbade the manufacture, sale or transportation of mislabeled food or drugs
      • It helped keep only healthy and good food in the markets which in turn kept people healthy
    • Meat Inspection Act
      • An act passed by TR in an attempt to better the meat packing industry which was processing and selling unsanitary meat, this was exposed in Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle
      • The act stated that federal inspectors would visit meatpacking plants to ensure that they met the minimum standards of sanitation
    • Conservation
      • During TR’s presidency one of his progressive movements was to conserve and preserve the wilderness and its resources
      • He protected natural resources in 3 main ways
        • Used Federal Reserve Act (1891) to set aside 150 million acres of land as national reserve
        • Newlands Reclamation Act (1902) providing money for the sale of public land for irrigation projectsexternal image TR-Enviro.JPG
        • 1908 TR held a conference about Conservation at the White House and a National Conservation Commission was created under Gifford Pinchot (who was earlier appointed to be the director of the US Forest Service by TR)

Actual footage of Teddy Roosevelt!!! (no sound)