Creation of The New GovernmentLiberty_Bell.jpg***OOOamerican_flag.jpg
  • 1. Early seeds of Democracy in the Colonies:
    • a. Virginia House of Burgesses
    • b. Mayflower Compact
    • c. New England Town Meetings
    • d. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
  • 2. Continental Congress: writes Articles of Confederation (first American Constitution)
    • a. Problems of the Articles:
      • i. Each state given only one vote in congress
      • ii. No executive enforcement established
      • iii. No national courts system to settle disputes
      • iv. Congress had no power to levy taxes/regulate state commerce
      • v. Congress had no army, could only borrow state troops
  • 3. Shay’s Rebellion: proves weakness of Articles of Confederation because Articles did not establish a military power of the government for enforcement of government measures
  • 4. Annapolis Convention: Maryland holds convention → people decide they want to revise the Articles of Confederation at next convention (The Constitutional Convention)
  • 5. Constitutional Convention: (Independence Hall, Philadelphia) framers got together to revise the Articles of Confederation and decide to draw up entirely new document (the Constitution)
    • a. Compromises of the Constitution
      • i. The Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise): debate over representation in Congress between large and small states; solution: representation in House of Representatives based on population, representation in Senate equal among all states
      • ii. 3/5 Compromise: 3/5 of slave population of a state would be counted when calculating the number of state representatives in the House of Representatives
      • iii. Indirect Election of President: Electoral college established to elect president; helped quell quarrels between aristocrats and democrats over election of president
    • b. Framers (founding fathers):
  • 6. Layout of Government decided by Constitutional Convention:
    • a. 3 branches
      • i. Legislative: Congress makes laws concerning: money, commerce, courtsm war, armed forces, immigration, and taxation; Congress has power to override presidential veto with a 2/3 vote
      • ii. Executive: headed by the president, enforces laws, and face of America in foreign policy situations
      • iii. Judicial: Supreme Court, determines Constitutionality of laws and interpretation of the Constitution
  • 7. Bill of Rights (beginning 10 amendments of Constitution added in 1791); States refused to ratify Constitution until Founding Fathers promised to add Bill of Rights
    • a. 10 Amendments:
      • i. freedom of speech, press, religion
      • ii. right to bear arms
      • iii. no quartering soldiers in the homes of Americans without their consent
      • iv. no unlawful search of a person or their property
      • v. right to know reason for arrest
      • vi. right to a quick and speedy trial by jury
      • vii. right to a jury in a civil trial
      • viii. no cruel, unusual punishment, and reasonable bail
      • ix. all rights in Constitution should ever be upheld
      • x. powers not specified in the Constitution are reserved for states and the people
  • 8. Growth of Federal Government
    • a. Cabinet: George Washington established group of individuals to advise him; each president chooses their own
    • b. Loose Interpretation versus Strict Interpretation
      • i. Alexander Hamilton started loose interpretation of Constitution to promote government poweralexander_hamilton.jpg
      • ii. Thomas Jefferson started strict interpretation of the Constitution to advocate for greater power of the people and state**00000.gif
    • c. Judiciary Act of 1789: established federal court system/SCOTUS (Supreme Court of the United States)
    • d. Chief Justice John Marshall: one of the first Supreme court justices; made supreme court decisions that supported the authority and power of the central government
      • i. Court Cases during this time that shaped government power:
        • 1. Marbury v. Madison : Judicial review of Supreme Court established
        • 2. Dartmouth College v. Woodward: private chartered corporations are protected by the constitution
        • 3. McCullough v. Maryland: cited elastic clause to state government could carry out legitimate acts not called for in the Constitution for the good of the nation; also extended reign of the elastic clause to state-federal relations > enhanced federal power
        • 4. Gibbons v. Ogden: right of federal government to regulate interstate commerce
    • e. Foreign Relations: George Washington declared neutrality almost immediately in relation to the Wars of the French Revolution


Constitutional Youtube! (please look, it's worth it!!)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CFotzl2Y1MM


thank you so much for the photos flickr!


thanks for the images google!

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution.html <<<check out our constitution here!